3D printing is a type of rapid prototyping technology that works with digital model files to create physical objects. Construction of objects is accomplished through the use of adhesive materials such as powder metal or plastic, which are stacked and accumulated in layers. This technology has traditionally been used in mold manufacturing, industrial design, and other fields, and it is increasingly being used in the direct manufacture of some products. In particular, some high-value applications have already made use of this technology to print parts, indicating that 3D printing is a widely used technology.
Among other things, the technology has been applied to jewelry, footwear and industrial design, as well as the fields of architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC), automobiles, aerospace, dental and medical industries, education, geographic information systems, civil engineering, and gunshoots.
The basic tenet
1. 3D modeling and rendering
Designing for 3D printing involves several steps: first, the Online 3D Printing model is created using CAD or computer animation modeling software, and then the 3D model is divided into layers and sections, which are then printed layer by layer by a 3D printer following the instructions on the printer's display.
In order to facilitate collaboration between design software and printers, the STL file format is the industry standard. An STL file is a 3D model that uses a triangle to approximate the surface of an object. The higher the resolution of the surface, the smaller the triangle is on the surface. Ply is a scanner that can scan objects and generate 3D models as a result. The VRML or WRL files generated by it are frequently used as input files for full-color printing because of their high quality.
2. The Printing Procedure
Using a liquid, powdery, or sheet material, the printer prints the cross-section information in the file layer by layer by layer, and then glues the sections of each layer together in various ways to form a solid. The ability to create almost anything in any shape is what distinguishes this technology from others.
The resolution of the plane direction, i. e. the X-Y direction, as well as the thickness of the section are calculated in dots per inch (dpi) or micrometers. Generally speaking, the thickness is 100 microns, or 0.1mm. Some printers, such as the objet connex series and the 3D systems'projet series, have the ability to print a thin layer as thin as 16 microns. The plane direction is capable of printing with a resolution that is comparable to that of a laser printer. The diameter of the printed ink drop is typically between 50 and 100 microns. Making a model using the traditional method can take anywhere from a few hours to several days, depending on the size and complexity of the model. The technology of 3D printing can reduce the time to a few hours, depending on the performance of the printer as well as the size and complexity of the model.
Traditional manufacturing technologies such as injection molding can produce polymer products at a low cost, whereas 3D printing technology can produce relatively few products in a faster, more flexible, and lower-cost manner than traditional manufacturing technologies. An affordable desktop 3D printer can meet the needs of designers and concept development teams who need to create models quickly and easily.
3. Complete the task.
At this time, the resolution of a 3D printed parts is sufficient for the majority of applications (although it may be rough on curved surfaces, as shown by the serration in the image). The following methods can be used to obtain items with higher resolution than the default setting:In the beginning, larger objects can be produced with the current 3D printer, and after that, high-resolution objects with smooth surfaces can be obtained by lightly polishing the surface of the larger objects produced earlier.
Some technologies allow for the printing of a variety of materials at the same time using a single process. Some printing technologies, such as 3D printing, require the use of supports. For example, when printing some inverted objects, it is necessary to use some things that are easy to remove (such as soluble things) as the support.
The use of technology
There are a plethora of different technologies available today. In contrast, they create assemblies in different layers in a way that is accessible to the user. An overview of three major technologies is provided in the following section:
1. The ink jet method is used by some 3D printers. The entire procedure consists in melting the plastic in the nozzle and then depositing plastic fiber to form a thin layer on the surface of the plastic.
It has a number of advantages, including greater molding precision, increased strength of the molding material, and the ability to form color; however, the surface after forming is rough.
2. Sterioritography (also known as SLA): users can imagine cutting a cucumber into thin slices and then assembling the slices into a whole piece. First, the software divides the 3D digital model into several planes, each of which is divided into a number of sections. An elevated platform that can be used while working is provided. An ultraviolet-curable liquid tank surrounds the platform, and it is filled with liquid that can be cured by the ultraviolet rays of the sun. In this case, the UV laser will begin at the bottom layer and solidify it, after which the platform will move down to solidify the next layer, and so on until it has been completely formed.
Advantages: high precision, with accurate surface and smooth effect; accuracy can reach 0.05 mm to 0.15 mm in thickness of each layer; accuracy can reach 0.05 mm to 0.15 mm in thickness of each layer. The disadvantage is that the materials that are available are limited in number and cannot be formed in multiple colors.
The third method is selective laser shaping, abbreviated sls, which is formed from powder materials. Spread the material powder on the upper surface of the formed parts and scrape it flat with a scraping motion if necessary. On the newly laid layer, a high-intensity CO2 laser is used to scan a section of the parts that have been cut out. The material powder is sintered together under high-intensity laser irradiation 3D Printing Services to form the section of the part and bond with the previously formed part beneath it. As soon as one layer of the cross section has been sintered, a new layer of material powder is applied and the lower section is sintered in a selective manner.
Advantages: It is significantly stronger than SLA and can be used to construct structural functions. The laser beam selectively melts powder materials such as nylon, elastomer, plastic, and metal. The following are some of the benefits of SLA:a wide range of materials are available, and their properties are comparable to those of ordinary engineering plastics;It is difficult to ensure z-direction accuracy without using rolling steps; however, this is possible with rolling steps. The procedure is straightforward, and there are no rolling or masking steps required. The use of thermoplastic materials allows for the creation of parts such as movable hinges. Molded parts have porous surfaces due to the presence of powder, and the sealing agent can improve and strengthen the parts. Using a brush or a blowtorch, the sintered powder material on the prototype can be easily removed.